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Abstract Small but significant gender differences in emotion expressions have been reported for adults, with women showing greater emotional expressivity, especially for positive emotions and internalizing negative emotions such as sadness. But when, developmentally, do these gender differences emerge?
And what developmental and contextual factors influence their emergence? This article describes a developmental bio-psycho-social model of gender differences in emotion expression in childhood.
Prior empirical research supporting the model, at least with mostly White middle-class U. Limitations to the extant literature and future Emotions brody essay for research on gender and child emotion are suggested. Interestingly, although women may be more expressive of most emotions, at least in Western cultures, men show equal or greater levels of physiological arousal, for example with men showing greater blood pressure and cortisol responses to emotionally arousing stressors e.
One key to better understand gender and emotion in adulthood and potential implications of these for psychological well-being is to take a developmental perspective. This article does this by describing general theories of gender and child development and then presenting a bio-psycho-social frame-work for understanding the development of gender differences and similarities in emotion expressions.
We draw on recent research findings on emotion expression in children and adolescents of different ages, with a particular focus on meta-analytic findings, to examine potential evidence for this model.
Notably, research to date on child emotion expression has focused largely on White middle and upper middle class youth from the United States, Canada, and some Western European countries.
Thus, our theoretical model and several past models is based largely on data from these cultural groups and may not generalize to other cultures.
Thus, after presenting our model, we discuss future directions for research on other cultural groups and discuss potential applications of our model to understanding of gender and emotion in childhood in different cultural contexts.
The present article focuses on emotion expression, which is what youth show externally in the form of facial, vocal, and postural expressions to communicate or to mask their internal emotional states to others.
The literature on gender and emotion regulation is not reviewed, but one can infer that regulation is occurring either consciously or subconsciously if, for example, girls express higher levels of happiness than boys when with a stranger, but not when alone.
General Theories of Gender Differences in Child Behavior Several theories have been proposed to explain the emergence of gender differences in behavior, in general, in childhood.
Three of the main theoretical models are: Below I describe the three models generally. In the next section, they will be described as applied to a bio-psycho-social model of gender differences in emotion expression.
These biologically related differences would then contribute to gender differences in behavior. For example, boys have been shown to have higher levels of arousal than girls in infancy and boys show less language ability and inhibitory control than girls in early childhood see Brody, These early gender differences have been found to be strongly influenced by biological factors, such as sex differences in gene expression and the influence of sex hormones e.
Of course, the type of unmodulated negative emotion that is expressed may be due to a biological propensity for boys to show anger or due to socialization factors that are more allowing of anger among males or due to a combination of biology and socialization.
Social learning theories posit that children are encouraged either through explicit teaching, through modeling, or through subtle encouragement of certain behaviors by socialization agents, to adopt gender-role consistent behaviors e.
For example, Chaplin, Cole, and Zahn-Waxler conducted an observational study of parent—child interactions with primarily White middle-class U.
They found that fathers but, interestingly, not mothers showed greater contingent responses to in-the-moment sadness and anxiety expressions by girls than boys and greater contingent responses to anger and disharmonious emotion expressions by boys than girls.Impact of Music on Culture Essay.
the song instead paints a series of several images (76). Campbell and Brody further point out that the sequence of images changes from the live recording and studio versions (76). As such, it is evident that the lyrics themselves are not vital to the message of the song.
Instead, it is the emotion expressed. Emotional Dissonance, Burnout, and Emotional exhaustion: Emotional labour can become “dysfunctional for the worker when dissonance between felt emotions and displayed emotions is experienced” (Lewig & Dollard, ).
This discrepancy between felt and display emotion is termed as emotional dissonance (Lewig & Dollard, ). The essays that describe how Brody helped his kids overcome basic fears are especially endearing. Although he discusses the ever-present barrier that separated him from parents who could not hear, Brody clearly committed himself to leveling any walls between himself and his own children.
Essay Existentialism And Human Emotions By Jean Paul Sartre.
The leading existential philosopher pf the twentieth century, Jean-Paul Sartre, in his book “Existentialism and Human Emotions” states that existence precedes essence.
Emotions are an integral part of our personality.
Most of the affairs of everyday life are tinged with feeling and emotions. Joy’s sorrow, excitement and disappointment, love and fear, attraction and repulsion, hope and dismay all these and many more are feelings we often experience in the course of a day.
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