Essay in need philosophy truth value values

The first two questions face anyone who cares to distinguish the real from the unreal and the true from the false.

Essay in need philosophy truth value values

Ontological Issues What sorts of things are these candidates? In particular, should the bearers of truth-values be regarded as being linguistic items and, as a consequence, items within specific languagesor are they non-linguistic items, or are they both?

In addition, should they be regarded as being concrete entities, i. Sentences are linguistic items: However, the term "sentence" has two senses: These three English sentence-tokens are all of the same sentence-type: Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun.

Sentence-tokens are concrete objects.

They are composed of ink marks on paper, or sequences of sounds, or patches of light on a computer monitor, etc. Sentence-tokens exist in space and time; they can be located in space and can be dated. They are abstract objects. Analogous distinctions can be made for letters, for words, for numerals, for musical notes on a stave, indeed for any symbols whatsoever.

Truth - Wikipedia

Might sentence-tokens be the bearers of truth-values? One reason to favor tokens over types is to solve the problems involving so-called "indexical" or "token reflexive" terms such as "I" and "here" and "now".

Is the claim expressed by the sentence-type "I like chocolate" true or false? Well, it depends on who "I" is referring to.

If Jack, who likes chocolate, says "I like chocolate", then what he has said is true; but if Jill, who dislikes chocolate, says "I like chocolate", then what she has said is false.

If it were sentence-types which were the bearers of truth-values, then the sentence-type "I like chocolate" would be both true and false — an unacceptable contradiction. The contradiction is avoided, however, if one argues that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values, for in this case although there is only one sentence-type involved, there are two distinct sentence-tokens.

A second reason for arguing that sentence-tokens, rather than sentence-types, are the bearers of truth-values has been advanced by nominalist philosophers. Nominalists are intent to allow as few abstract objects as possible. Insofar as sentence-types are abstract objects and sentence-tokens are concrete objects, nominalists will argue that actually uttered or written sentence-tokens are the proper bearers of truth-values.

But the theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values has its own problems. One objection to the nominalist theory is that had there never been any language-users, then there would be no truths.

And the same objection can be leveled against arguing that it is beliefs that are the bearers of truth-values: And a second objection — to the theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values — is that even though there are language-users, there are sentences that have never been uttered and never will be.

Consider, for example, the distinct number of different ways that a deck of playing cards can be arranged. And there are countless other examples as well. Sentence-tokens, then, cannot be identified as the bearers of truth-values — there simply are too few sentence-tokens.

Essay in need philosophy truth value values

Thus both theories — i that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values, and ii that sentence-types are the bearers of truth-values — encounter difficulties. Might propositions be the bearers of truth-values?Aristotle's Metaphysics Theta On the Essence and Actuality of ashio-midori.comated by Walter Brogan and Peter Warnek, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, This is a lecture course, "Interpretations of Ancient Philosophy", presented at the University of Freiburg during summer semester Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..

Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good .

Essay in need philosophy truth value values

This text aims to bring together a selection of writings of contemporary philosopher David Wiggins, drawn from his work in the broad area of the philosophy of value.

For coherence theories in general, truth requires a proper fit of elements within a whole system. Very often, though, coherence is taken to imply something more than simple logical consistency; often there is a demand that the propositions in a coherent system lend mutual inferential support to each other.

Jun 25,  · English 16 October Family Value and Truth Family in society is a social structure. Family plays a key role in human life because it can give people a sense of home, or a loving and supportive group.

If looking for a book by David Wiggins Needs, Values, Truth: Essays in the Philosophy of Value in pdf form, then you've come to the faithful site.

Values of philosophy essay